MIX.E 2023

What energy security, what energy and technological independence for Europe in the race to zero?


Replacing 80% of Europe's primary energy demand by 2050 - this is the challenge to be met by the new energy industries to reach the net zero emissions objective. Given EU’s current dependence on fossil fuels, the fact that the utility sector may become cornerstone of the EU's energy system appears as a major step towards energy independence, both in terms of flows and technologies. But is Europe the right continent to produce renewable energy in quantities? Furthermore, while clean energy R&D and patenting are currently focused in few places (US, Europe, Japan, Korea and China), solar panels are mainly imported into the EU, while some key raw materials, such as cobalt for batteries or iridium for electrolyzers, have a limited supplier base. So, the question is, what kind of energy and technological independence could Europe actually achieve in a net zero world?

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